The grapes, once destemmed and crushed, flow by gravity into thermo-controlled steel and cement containers where fermentation takes place with indigenous yeasts at temperatures never exceeding 29°C. During the entire period of fermentation and maceration, the wine is pumped over and the cap punched down following delestage racking techniques. After 18 to 25 days the wine is separated from the lees and left to settle for about three months, during which time it undergoes malolactic fermentation followed by several rackings. In January, the wine is transferred into large Slavonian oak barrels—of 20/30/50 hectoliters—where the Rosso di Montalcino will stay for 12 months, the Brunello for 36 months and the Brunello Riserva for 48 months. Before being bottled, the wine is transferred to concrete tanks to await the DOC and DOCG certifications. After light filtration, the wines are bottled for further refinement—at least two months for Rosso di Montalcino, ten months for Brunello and five years for the Riserva DIECIANNI.